你现所在的位置:网站首页 >> ENGLISH >> BRICS Research

BRICS Political Challenges in Context of Russian-Chinese Relations

来源:InfoBrics;发表于:2022-11-28;人气指数:126

Monday, November 28, 2022

 


BRICS Political Challenges in Context of Russian-Chinese Relations


Alexandra Gorshkova, RUDN, participant of the VI BRICS International School – special for InfoBRICS

Russian-Chinese relations have a very long and eventful history. The states have gone through a lot together: conflicts, truces. Now Russian-Chinese relations are flourishing like never before, which is why it is so important to pay special attention to them. This includes politics, economics, and humanitarian cooperation. And they are also connected by an organization like BRICS, which helps countries to evolve in terms of economy and diplomacy together. In my essay, I will talk about how BRICS has influenced the diplomatic relations between Russia and China.

At first, let’s take a look at prehistory: The first diplomatic agreement was registered as a result of the Albazin War of 1685-1686. Nerchensky peace of 1689, which was signed by Fyodor Golitsyn. According to the Aigun Treaty of 1858 the territories along the left bank of the Amur River were joined (the Usuri Territory was in common ownership). In the Beijing Treaty of 1860, the accession of the Usuri Territory, and the Left-Bank Amur was prescribed. In 1891, the construction of the Trans-Siberian began. In 1897-1903 the CER was built. In 1939, a trade agreement was concluded between the USSR and China. Accordingly, all these steps led to the building of trusting relationships, if not for one "but": in 1969 there was a conflict with China on Damansky Island on the Ussuri River. There was an armed clash of border troops. Reforms have begun in China. The USSR accused the PRC of counter-reformation. Only after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976 and L. I. Brezhnev in 1982 did relations begin to gradually recover. Under Yu. V. Andropov and K. U. Chernenko, negotiations began on the normalization of relations between the USSR and the PRC. Relations were finally restored under M. S. Gorbachev, a symbol of which was his visit to China (the first in 30 years after N. S. Khrushchev) in May. Relations between the two states moved from simple normalization to good neighborly partnership, and in 1996 to strategic interaction.

The prerequisites for the creation were discussed back in 2001 at a meeting of the SCO organization. In September 2006 (during the 61st session of the UN) a meeting of the foreign ministers of the four countries took place in New York. The first meeting of the BRIC heads of state took place on July 9, 2008th in Toyako-Onsen. A full-format meeting took place in Yekaterinburg on June 16, 2009.

Activity in bilateral relations can be noted since 2014, when the Russian establishment started talking about the "Eastern turn in the country's foreign policy." It is possible to note the joint positions of the countries on international platforms, both countries made almost identical statements on such issues as the situation in Afghanistan, the development of nuclear programs in the DPRK and the Islamic Republic of Iran, as well as on the Ukrainian crisis. The issue of joint formation in the Asia-Pacific region of a new inclusive security architecture, involving the participation of all countries, was not overlooked either.

In addition, during this period, the number of contacts in the multilateral format increased significantly: during the BRICS summit (annually), in Dushanbe during Russia’s negotiations with China and Mongolia (2014), in Beijing during preparations for the next APEC summit (2014), at the G-20 Hangzhou Summit in China (2016), etc.

Inter-ministerial cooperation and intensification of interaction between the departments of the two countries is developing after the October 2014 meeting of the heads of government in Moscow. As a result of the meeting, agreements on cooperation in the field of law and order and legality, as well as in the field of justice, are being implemented, which corresponds to the common efforts to combat drugs and terrorism.

The level of trust in relations between the Russian Federation and China within the framework of BRICS makes it possible to solve a number of strategic tasks in the international sphere. Thus, in September 2010 in Beijing, the President of the Russian Federation D.A. Medvedev and Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China Hu Jintao announced a joint initiative to strengthen security cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. In the conditions of the current economic crisis, the states of the Asia-Pacific region are the main drivers of the development of the world economy. On February 28, 2017, the United States, France, and the United Kingdom proposed sanctions against Syria, unfoundedly accusing Syrian government forces of using chemical weapons. Russia and China exercised their veto power during the UN Security Council vote on a draft resolution on sanctions against the Syrian leadership for the use of chemical weapons.

The Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China, actively cooperating within the framework of a new model of international relations with countries with different socio-political systems, thereby create pillars for a new international order. China and Russia have repeatedly indicated that they do not intend to create a military alliance in any form, and their relationship of comprehensive strategic cooperation and partnership is not directed against a third party.

Today, both China and Russia are making efforts to increase their national power, develop the economy and improve the lives of the people. There is a comprehensive deepening of business cooperation between China and Russia in trade, economic, energy and other fields.

China and Russia have repeatedly indicated that they do not intend to create a military alliance in any form, and their relationship of comprehensive strategic cooperation and partnership is not directed against a third party. The two countries make up a wonderful political union. They follow a similar political line and often vote for the same decisions.

After doing research, I found out where else, besides BRICS, the diplomacy of Russia and China intersects.

• UN (1945) - Within this organization, both countries vote approximately equally for a particular project, and propose joint adjustments for the organization.

• IAEA (1957) - an international organization for the development of cooperation in the field of peaceful use of atomic energy.

• ASEAN (1967) is an international organization within which cooperation takes place in three areas: economic, political, and cultural.

• APEC (1989) - Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation is an interstate forum created to promote economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. defining rules for regional trade and investment.

• WTO (1995) - in December 2001, China joined the World Trade Organization.

• SCO (2001) - an organization that ensures regional security.

But now it is worth talking about the political challenges faced by Russia and China. There are several areas in which these phenomena can be observed. First of all, this is politics, and more specifically, the clash of international interests and the formation of alliances and organizations that have disagreements. From an economic point of view, sanctions come to the fore, which, unfortunately, hinder cooperation due to the fact that China's trade with Russia can worsen relations with the United States, and the latter will impose sanctions on China in this regard. Security issues: countries are building up the military-industrial complex, which can turn into a real military threat. and the issue of global governance: in the current modern situation, it is very difficult for leaders of countries to gather at the negotiating table and come to any mutual solution.

Furthermore, the new US policy to "drive a wedge" is to exert maximum pressure on China over bilateral relations with Russia during the Ukrainian crisis. For example, if earlier the United States tried to tempt Russia to go against China, now it has outgrown the threat towards the latter, thereby forcing Beijing to join the sanctions.

The economic sanctions imposed on Russia are indeed exacerbating the situation. On the one hand, they give a certain impetus to Chinese-Russian cooperation, but on the other hand, Beijing is in a difficult situation, not knowing what will happen tomorrow, what if sanctions are also imposed against China? This may lead to secondary sanctions against Chinese financial institutions and companies, which will limit their further activities around the world, including in America and Europe, and also call into question the promotion of their economic and commercial interests.

2022 becomes a new page for China as the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of China took place. Xi Jinping has been elected to a third five-year term. Accordingly, 2022 will be a new chapter for both Russian-Chinese relations and BRICS. Most likely, this will serve for new challenges that will have to be fought.

However, we can say that BRICS is an opposition to hegemonism and the creation of a unipolar world because the position of the association is to maintain world peace. Xi Jinping also spoke out. that it is necessary to abandon the zero-sum game in support of the general unification of countries against the struggle against hegemonism. He proposed to jointly build a mutually beneficial, balanced, coordinated, inclusive, joint, mutually beneficial and common prosperous basis for global development, and announced important steps taken by China to implement global development initiatives. It should be emphasized that the "BRICS potential" in the area of innovation and development is disclosed. Xi Jinping pointed out that there is a need to seize the opportunity of the new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation, promote the global flow of innovation and development factors, and help developing countries promote the development of digital and accelerate green economy. Transformation. Build a strong "BRICS line of defense" and build a community of common future for humanity in the field of medical and health care. Xi Jinping stressed the need for active cooperation in the fight against COVID-19 and supplying more anti-epidemic drugs to developing countries to defeat the epidemic as soon as possible. In March, the BRICS Vaccine R&D Center was successfully opened, creating an integrated platform for collaborative R&D and production of vaccines in developing countries. The meeting agreed on four points, including promoting pragmatic cooperation to fight the pandemic and improving the global system of governance in this area, which naturally facilitates interaction to deal with COVID-19 and a community of common future for mankind united in the field of protection.

As the "powerful mover" of the BRICS countries, China and Russia play an important leading role in ensuring the gradual development of BRICS cooperation. Russian President Vladimir Putin personally attended these three events and admitted in his speech that the leading role of the BRICS countries is more important than ever in BRICS Presidency. Today, the development of the international structure and world order is strongly influenced by world processes, including the Ukrainian crisis, the struggle between world powers and the worst epidemic in a century. According to this situation, China and Russia should strengthen strategic cooperation, show firm will, determine the constructive role of "China-Russia relations", help the BRICS countries maintain strategic independence on pressing issues of the international and regional agenda, and support construction. "Belts and Roads". Challenge hegemonism and practice true multilateralism.

With the active support and participation of Russia and other BRICS countries, as part of the "Year of China", more than 170 events in various fields with 37 major results are planned, which will be an absolute record for the Year of China. Quantitative and qualitative development of BRICS cooperation. In the first half of 2022 alone, more than 20 ministerial-level meetings were held and representatives from more than 50 countries outside the association participated in various activities in the form of BRICS+. A series of exciting events with cultural and humanitarian interactions were successfully held, including the "BRICS Forum of Political Parties, Think Tanks and Civil Organizations". Around 80 conferences and events will take place by the end of the year in various fields, including communications, intellectual property, anti-corruption, employment, think tanks and the mass media.

In conclusion, I want to say that Russian-Chinese diplomatic relations in context of BRICS evolve over the years. BRICS is a great prospect for the future, as the countries of this organization support each other and develop together, which gives us hope for a bright economic and political future and prosperity.

Source: InfoBrics

上一页 当前第1页 总共第14页 下一页